Paul Joseph Goebbels
DEATH: 1 May 1945 (aged 47)
Berlin-Mitte, Mitte, Berlin, Germany
Joseph Goebbels was born on October 29, 1897 and was a German politician and Minister of Propaganda in Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1945, he was known for his public speaking skills, one of the most competent members of the Nazi period. Goebbels suffered from several health problems such as inflammation of the lungs and his right foot was deformed due to a congenital deformity, his foot was thinner and shorter than his left. Goebbels even had an unsuccessful operation to correct him before going to school, he wore a metallic device and a special shoe because of his shorter leg, and he limped when walking. Goebbels had the ambition to become a writer, but poor profitability forced him to work as a crier on the stock exchange and as a bank employee in Cologne. He met Hitler in 1924 and became a party member of NSDAP. However, he felt a little betrayed by Hitler when he went to a conference in Bamber where Hitler spoke saying that "there would be no princes, only Germans", and a good system without "... Jewish exploitation system ... of looting the our people". The future would be secured by acquiring land not by expropriating properties of the former nobility, but by colonizing territories to the east. Goebbels considered Hitler's characterization of socialism to be "a creation of the Jews" to be nonsense, and for his guarantee that private property would not be expropriated by the Nazi government. "I no longer believe in Hitler. This is very bad: my personal support has been destroyed," he wrote in his diary.
Hitler called meetings in Munich with the three Great leaders of Gaude Ruhr, including Goebbels. He was impressed when Hitler sent his own car to pick them up at the train station. That night, Hitler and Goebbels spoke at brewery gatherings. The next day, Hitler proposed a reconciliation to the three men, encouraging them to put their differences aside. Hitler also gave Goebbels a "new view" on the "social issue". Goebbels allowed himself to be surrendered in full, offering Hitler his total loyalty that lasted until the end of his life at the Führerbunker. Goebbels was exempt from speaking and convincing crowds and Hitler realized this greatness that he possessed. In 1930, violence between the Nazis and the Communists led to the death of the local leader of the SA, Horst Wessel, shot by two members of the Communist Party of Germany. Exploring the death of Wessel, Goebbels transformed him into a martyr to the Nazi movement. He officially changed the Die Fahne hoch (Hoisting the Flag) march to Horst-Wessel-Lied, in honor of the SA leader, and made it the NSDAP anthem. In late April 1930, Hitler publicly announced his opposition to Gregor Strasser, and appointed Goebbels to replace him as leader of the Reich for NSDAP propaganda. In the late 1930s, Goebbels met Magda Quandt and they married on December 19, 1931, had 5 daughters and 1 son (The Goebbels family can be visited at: https://markmargo.wixsite.com/goebbelsfamily). In the next two elections that took place in 1932, Goebbels organized large-scale campaigns that included marches, parades, speeches that he made and Hitler traveling around the country by plane with the logan "the Führer over Germany". When Hitler was appointed chancellor, Goebbels organized a torchlight parade in Berlin on the evening of January 30, with about 60,000 men in uniform in SA and SS uniforms. The show was covered by a live radio broadcast, with comments from a former party member and future Minister of Aviation, Hermann Göring. It was Goebbels who drafted the text of Hitler's decree to authorize the Nazi boycott of Jewish business, Life magazine wrote in 1938 that "personally, he doesn't like anyone, nobody likes him, and he runs the most efficient Nazi department." in 1939 the Minister of propaganda already had control of everything, newspapers, radio and television, he even ordered the production of low-cost household appliances called Volksempfänger, close to 10 million devices had been sold. In public areas, factories and schools, loudspeakers were placed so that the most important broadcasts of the party could be heard in real time by almost all Germans.
Goebbels was involved in the famous 1934 rally in Nuremberg and in planning the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. In the 2nd world war, the Ministry of Propaganda took control of the broadcasting facilities of the countries conquered after its surrender, and began to issue previously prepared material with the support of already existing advertisers, in order to gain citizens' trust. Party rallies, speeches and demonstrations continued; the speeches were broadcast on the radio and the small propaganda films were shown using 1500 mobile vans. As the war progressed, Hitler began to make less public appearances, and Goebbels became the voice of the Nazi regime for the German people. In 1942 with Germany going through a possible defeat (although still a small chance) in the war, Goebbels was concerned with the morale and effort of the forces on the war front. He thought that the more German citizens were involved in the war effort, the better it would be, so he implemented changes to have more "entertainment content" on the radio and films produced for the public by decreeing, in late 1942, that twenty percent of films would be about advertising and eighty percent of light entertainment. Goebbels believed that he had the support of the German people in his call for total war. His next speech, Sportpalast's speech of February 18, 1943, was a passionate search for his audience to engage in total war, which he presented it as the only way to end the attacks of Bolshevism and save the German people from destruction. The discovery, at this point, of mass graves of Polish officers who had been murdered by the Red Army in 1940 - the Katyn massacre - was used by Goebbels in his propaganda in an attempt to bridge the gap between the Soviets and the Western allies.
The events of the defeats in Stalingrad, the Second Battle of El Alamein, the Allied invasion of Sicily and the final blow to the German defeat by the Soviets at the Battle of Kursk, Goebbels raised the possibility, with Hitler, of proposing a separate peace, whether with the Soviets or with the British. Hitler stupidly refused both proposals. In 1944 and with defeat as an increasingly likely scenario for Joseph Goebbels to boost morale, Goebbels continued to publish propaganda conveying the idea that new bombs like the V1 and V2 would have a decisive impact on the outcome of the war in favor of Nazi Germany. The attack on Hitler on July 20, where he narrowly escaped a bomb in his headquarters in East Prussia, played a crucial role in those who wanted a change: Bormann, Goebbels, Himmler and Speer. Against Göring's objections, Goebbels was appointed to the Reich's Plenipotentiary for Total War on July 23, with the responsibility of maximizing the workforce for the Wehrmacht and the armaments industry at the expense of sectors of the economy less critical to the effort. Through these efforts, Goebbels managed to free around half a million men for military service. In the last months of the war, Goebbels' articles and speeches took on an increasingly apocalyptic tone, however he was aware that defeat was inevitable, which he repeatedly proposed to Hitler to negotiate peace only with England and the USA, again Hitler. stupidly refused. On the night of May 1, 1945, Goebbels sent for an SS dentist, Helmut Kunz, to inject his six children with morphine, so that they would be unconscious when they were then given a vial of cyanide in their mouths. Kunz's testimony, he administered the morphine, but it was Magda and the SS-Obersturmbannführer Ludwig Stumpfegger, Hitler's personal physician, who gave them cyanide. At 8:30 pm, Goebbels and Magda left the bunker and went to the Chancellery garden, where they committed suicide.